Present Perfect


  • In cases where it happened in the past, the exact time is unknown.
    • I have listened that music hundred times.
    • There have been many earthquakes in my country.
  • Actions that took place in the past and are still ongoing
    • I have had a cold for two weeks.
    • Martina has been in Germany for six months.
  • Actions that took place in the past, the consequences of which are still ongoing
    • I have lost my key
    • I have studied in Bachelor.


  • Declarative sentence
    have/has+ past particle.
    The past particle form of the verb is constructed by adding the suffix ed to the end of the verb when the verb is regular. When the verb is irregular, the past particle form is constructed in a special way. It is necessary to memorize the past particle form of such irregular verbs.
    I have finished my work.
    She has cooked dinner.
    We have spent three years in Belgium.
  • Question
    In the question sentence have/has comes to the beginning of the sentence.
    Has she cooked dinner?
    Have you spent three years in Belgium?
  • Negation
    In the negation sentence after have/has not will be used.
    I have not finished my work.
    She hasn’t cooked dinner.

Irregular verbs

In English, there are regular and irregular types of verbs. The past tense of the regular verb (simple past) and the past particle form are corrected by adding one of the suffixes d, -ed to the end of the verb. (Example: I work, I worked)

Both past simple and past particle forms of irregular verbs are constructed in a special way, and it is necessary to memorize these forms for each irregular verb.

The following cards show 30 irregular verbs, on the back of the flashcard is first the past simple form of the verb and then the particle form.

Past simple and past participle forms of irregular verbs